Tuesday , 16 July 2019

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ITIKAF RULES

ITIKAF IS IBAH NORMAL DONE IN LAST 10 DAYS OF RAMADAN

I’tikaf refers to going into seclusion in the mosque for the sole purpose of worshipping Allah and attaching oneself and one’s heart to His worship. I’tikaf provides an opportunity to the believer to get closer to Allah by temporarily freeing oneself and one’s mind from the activities and worries of this world. This provides an excellent opportunity to train oneself to disassociate temporarily from the worries of the world and to instead focus only on Allah alone.

1. Rules for I’tikaf

Following are some of the rules for I’tikaf based on the Islamic teachings that are mentioned for each case:

A person should stay in a mosque for the duration of the I’tikaf (except for certain things as described below in the prophetic sayings:

Aa’ishah reported that when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) observed I’tikaf, he did not enter the house except to relieve himself. Narrated by Muslim (297).

Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said: The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used not to enter the house except for things that a person needs when he was observing I’tikaf. [Al-Bukhari (2092) and Muslim (297)]

Ibn Qudaamah (may Allah have mercy on him) said that what is meant by things that a person needs is to urinate and defecate, because every person need to do that. Similarly, he also needs to eat and drink. If he does not have anyone who can bring him food and drink, then he may go out to get them if he needs to. For everything that he cannot do without and cannot do in the mosque, he may go out for that purpose, and that does not invalidate his I’tikaf, so long as he does not take a long time doing it. (al-Mughni (4/466)

For men, I’tikaf is to be held only in a mosque where congregation prayers are held.

Aa’ishah: “There should be no I’tikaf except in a mosque in which prayers in congregation are held (masjid jamaa’ah).” Narrated by al-Bayhaqi, classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in his essay Qiyaam Ramadan.

Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allah be pleased with him) said: “There should be no I’tikaf except in a mosque in which prayer is established.” Al-Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah, 5/212.

Women can be in a state of I’tikaf in mosques where congregation prayers are not held.

If a woman observes I’tikaf in a mosque in which prayers are not held in congregation, there is nothing wrong with that because she does not have to pray in congregation. Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen said in al-Sharh al-Mumti’ (6/313)

Shaykh Ibn Baaz (may Allah have mercy on him) was asked: How sound is the hadeeth “There is no I’tikaf except in the three mosques”? If the hadeeth is saheeh, does that in fact mean that I’tikaf can only be observed in the three mosques? He replied: I’tikaf is valid in mosques other than the three mosques, but it is essential that the mosque in which I’tikaf is observed is a mosque in which prayers are held in congregation. If no prayers are held in congregation there, then it is not valid to observe I’tikaf there. But if a person has vowed to observe I’tikaf in one of the three mosques then he is obliged to do so in fulfillment of his vow. [Majmoo’ Fataawa Ibn Baaz, 15/444.]

I’tikaf is not permissible except in a mosque in which prayers in congregation are held. I’tikaf is not valid anywhere except in a mosque if the person observing I’tikaf is a man. We do not know of any difference of opinion among the scholars concerning this.

I’tikaf on the part of a man or of a woman is not valid anywhere except in the mosque. It is not valid in the prayer-place of a woman’s house or the prayer-place of a man’s house, which is a separate area set aside for prayer. Al-Nawawi said in al-Majmoo’ (6/505)

“Shar’i I’tikaf must be in the mosques, because Allah says:: “… while you are in I’tikaf (i.e. confining oneself in a mosque for prayers and invocations leaving the worldly activities) in the mosques” [al-Baqarah 2:187]. “Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen in Fataawa Noor ‘ala al-Darb (8/176)”

“Undoubtedly I’tikaf in the mosque is an act of worship, and (observing it) in Ramadan is better than at other times. It is prescribed in Ramadan and at other times.  [Fiqh al-I’tikaf by Dr Khaalid al-Mushayqih, p. 41 – Shaykh Ibn Baaz said in Majmoo’ al-Fataawa (15/437)]

Complete prohibition of sexual relations during those days

A person is prohibited from engaging in sexual relations with his wives during the period of I’tikaf. Allah tells us in the Quran:

“And do not have sexual relations with them (your wives) while you are in I’tikaf (i.e. confining oneself in a mosque for prayers and invocations leaving the worldly activities) in the mosques” [Surah al-Baqarah 2:187]

A person may leave the mosque if he is extremely sick.

That for a person in I’tikaf who is so sick that it is too hard for him to stay in the mosque because he needs to be in his bed, and he needs to be helped and to be visited by the doctor  etc, it is permissible for him to leave the mosque Al-Nawawi (may Allah have mercy on him) stated in al-Majmoo’ (6/545)

Whoever needs to see a doctor may leave, otherwise he should stay in the mosque. Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) said in Jalasaat Ramadaniyyah (1411 AH/ al-Majlis al-Saabi’, 144)

Duration of the i’tikaf can be varied ranging from a short moment to many days.

With regard to the minimum length of time for I’tikaf, the majority stipulated that it must be observed in the mosque, and that it is permissible to do a lot or a little, even a hour or a moment.  They quoted several reports as evidence for that: That I’tikaf in Arabic means staying, and the word may be applied to a long period of time or a short one; there is no report in sharee’ah that defines it as being a specific length of time. Al-Nawawi said in al-Majmoo’, 6/514

Ibn Hazm said: I’tikaf in the language of the Arabs means staying… any stay in the mosque for the sake of Allah with the intention of drawing closer to Him is I’tikaf… whether that is for a short time or a long time, because the Quran and Sunnah do not specify any number or length of time. Al-Muhalla, 5/179

I’tikaf means staying in the mosque to worship Allah, whether that is for a long time or a short time, because as far as I know there is no report to indicate a set time, whether one or two days or more. This is an act of worship which is prescribed in Islam unless one vows to do it, in which case it becomes obligatory. This applies equally to men and women. [Shaykh Ibn Baaz said in Majmoo’ al-Fataawa (15/441)]

2. I’tikaf during Ramadan

They (the scholars) said that one of the greatest aims of I’tikaf is to seek Laylat al-Qadr, and (to observe I’tikaf in the last ten nights of Ramadan.) [Stated by al-Sindi in Haashiyat al-Nasaa’i. See al-Mughni, 4/489]

A person should come out of I’tikaf when Ramadan ends. Ramadan ends when the sun sets on the night of Eid. Fataawa al-Siyaam, p. 502. (Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen)

Al-Shaafa’i and his companions said: Whoever would like to follow the example of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) in observing I’tikaf during the last ten nights of Ramadan should enter the mosque before the sun sets on the night of the twenty-first, so that he will not miss any of it, and he should come out after the sun sets on the night of Eid, whether the month is twenty-nine days or thirty. It is better for him to stay in the mosque on the night of Eid so that he can offer the Eid prayer there, or go out to the Eid prayer-place if they pray Eid there Al-Nawawi said in al-Majmoo’ (6/323)

Certain conditions for the person in I’tikaf

‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said: “The Sunnah for the mu’takif is not to visit any sick person, or attend any funeral, or touch or be intimate with any woman, or go out for any reason except those which cannot be avoided.” Narrated by Abu Dawood, 2473.

I’tikaf can be performed anytime during the year. However, the best one is that which is performed during the last ten days of Ramadan.

I’tikaf is Sunnah according to consensus, and it is not obligatory unless one vowed to do it – also according to consensus. It is mustahabb to do it a great deal and it is mustahabb especially in the last ten days of Ramadan. He also said (6/514): The best I’tikaf is that which is accompanied by fasting, and the best of that is in Ramadan, and the best of that is the last ten days. (Al-Nawawi said in al-Majmoo’ (6/501).)

I’tikaf is Sunnah in Ramadan and at other times of the year. (Al-Albaani)

It is not valid for men or women to observe I’tikaf anywhere but in the mosque; it is not valid in the mosque of a woman’s house or the mosque of a man’s house, which is a space that is set aside for prayer. (Al-Nawawi said in al-Majmoo’ (6/505))

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) was asked about where a woman who wants to observe I’tikaf should do so? He replied: If a woman wants to observe I’tikaf, she should observe I’tikaf in the mosque so long as that does not involve anything that is forbidden according to sharee’ah. If that does involve anything that is forbidden then she should not do I’tikaf. Majmoo’ al-Fataawa (20/264)

The scholars differed as to where women should observe I’tikaf. The majority are of the view that woman are like men, and their I’tikaf is not valid unless observed in the mosque. Based on this it is not valid for a woman to observe I’tikaf in the mosque of her house, because of the report narrated from Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allah be pleased with him) who asked about a woman who vowed to observe I’tikaf in the mosque of her house. He said: “(This is) an innovation, and the most hateful of actions to Allah are innovations (bid’ah).” So there can be no I’tikaf except in a mosque in which prayers are established. And the mosque of a house is not a mosque in the real sense of the word and does not come under the same rulings; it is permissible to change it, and for a person who is junub to sleep in it. Moreover if it were permissible (to observe I’tikaf at home), the Prophet’s wives (may Allah be pleased with them) would have done that at least once to show that it is permissible Al-Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah (5/212)

Shaykh Ibn Baaz (may Allah have mercy on him) said: I’tikaf means staying in the mosque to worship Allah, whether that is for a longer or shorter period, because there is no report – as far as I know – to indicate a specific length of time, whether one day, two days or more. Fataawa al-Shaykh Ibn Baaz, 15/441.

What is meant by things that a person needs is to urinate and defecate, because every person need to do that. Similarly, he also needs to eat and drink. If he does not have anyone who can bring him food and drink, then he may go out to get them if he needs to. For everything that he cannot do without and cannot do in the mosque, he may go out for that purpose, and that does not invalidate his I’tikaf, so long as he does not take a long time doing it. Ibn Qudaamah (may Allah have mercy on him) said in al-Mughni (4/466)